25 mg/mL Aminophylline, Dihydrate
(Equivalent to 19.7 mg/mL of Anhydrous Theophylline)
Fliptop Vial Rx only
Aminophylline Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution of aminophylline in water for injection. Aminophylline (dihydrate) is approximately 79% of anhydrous theophylline by weight. Aminophylline Injection is administered by slow intravenous injection or diluted and administered by intravenous infusion.
The solution contains no bacteriostat or antimicrobial agent and is intended for use only as a single-dose injection. When smaller doses are required the unused portion should be discarded.
Aminophylline is a 2:1 complex of theophylline and ethylenediamine. Theophylline is structurally classified as a methylxanthine. Aminophylline occurs as a white or slightly yellowish granule or powder, with a slight ammoniacal odor. Aminophylline has the chemical name 1H-Purine-2, 6-dione, 3,7-dihydro-1,3-dimethyl-, compound with 1,2-ethanediamine (2:1). The structural formula of aminophylline (dihydrate) is as follows:
The molecular formula of aminophylline dihydrate is C16H24N10O4 • 2(H2O) with a molecular weight of 456.46.
Aminophylline Injection, USP contains aminophylline (calculated as the dihydrate) 25 mg/mL (equivalent to 19.7 mg/mL anhydrous theophylline) prepared with the aid of ethylenediamine. The solution may contain an excess of ethylenediamine for pH adjustment. pH is 8.8 (8.6 to 9.0). The osmolar concentration is 0.17 mOsmol/mL (calc.).
Mechanism of Action:
Theophylline has two distinct actions in the airways of patients with reversible obstruction; smooth muscle relaxation (i.e., bronchodilation) and suppression of the response of the airways to stimuli (i.e., nonbronchodilator prophylactic effects). While the mechanisms of action of theophylline are not known with certainty, studies in animals suggest that bronchodilation is mediated by the inhibition of two isozymes of phosphodiesterase (PDE III and, to a lesser extent, PDE IV), while nonbronchodilator prophylactic actions are probably mediated through one or more different molecular mechanisms, that do not involve inhibition of PDE III or antagonism of adenosine receptors. Some of the adverse effects associated with theophylline appear to be mediated by inhibition of PDE III (e.g., hypotension, tachycardia, headache, and emesis) and adenosine receptor antagonism (e.g., alterations in cerebral blood flow).
Theophylline increases the force of contraction of diaphragmatic muscles. This action appears to be due to enhancement of calcium uptake through an adenosine-mediated channel.
Serum Concentration-Effect Relationship:
Bronchodilation occurs over the serum theophylline concentration range of 5 - 20 mcg/mL. Clinically important improvement in symptom control and pulmonary function has been found in most studies to require serum theophylline concentrations >10 mcg/mL. At serum theophylline concentrations >20 mcg/mL, both the frequency and severity of adverse reactions increase. In general, maintaining the average serum theophylline concentration between 10 and 15 mcg/mL will achieve most of the drug’s potential therapeutic benefit while minimizing the risk of serious adverse events.
Overview The pharmacokinetics of theophylline vary widely among similar patients and cannot be predicted by age, sex, body weight or other demographic characteristics. In addition, certain concurrent illnesses and alterations in normal physiology (see Table I) and co-administration of other drugs (see Table II) can significantly alter the pharmacokinetic characteristics of theophylline. Within-subject variability in metabolism has also been reported in some studies, especially in acutely ill patients.
It is, therefore, recommended that serum theophylline concentrations be measured frequently in acutely ill patients receiving intravenous theophylline (e.g., at 24-hr. intervals). More frequent measurements should be made during the initiation of therapy and in the presence of any condition that may significantly alter theophylline clearance